|Year : 2018 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 1-10
Prevalence of orthodontic treatment need in permanent dentition of Iranian population: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies
Faezeh Eslamipour1, Zohreh Afshari2, Arash Najimi3
1 Department of Oral Public Health, Dental Research Center, School of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
2 Dental students' Research Center, School of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
3 Medical Education Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
|Date of Web Publication||19-Jan-2018|
Dr. Zohreh Afshari
Dental Studentsf Research Center, School of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: Malocclusion is a common oral health problem and can affect the psychosocial well-being in the long term. Therefore, in the recent decades, demand for orthodontic treatment to correct malocclusion has greatly increased worldwide. This systematic review and meta-analysis was undertaken to assess existing evidence on the prevalence of orthodontic treatment need in Iran.
Materials and Methods: National and international databases were searched for articles on the prevalence of orthodontic treatment need using index of orthodontic treatment need (IOTN) and dental aesthetic index (DAI). The required data were completed by hand-searching. After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the quality of articles was checked by a professional checklist. Data extraction and meta-analysis were performed. A random effects model was employed, and publication bias was checked.
Results: From a total of 443 articles that reported orthodontic treatment need in Iran, 24 articles were included in the meta-analysis process. Meta-analysis was performed on components of IOTN and DAI. The pooled prevalence of orthodontic treatment need based on Dental Health Component and Aesthetic Component of IOTN and DAI was 23.8% (19.5%–28.7%), 4.8% (3.3%–7%), and 16.1% (12.3%-20.8%). The results were found to be heterogeneous (P < 0.05).
Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that orthodontic treatment need was not high in the Iranian population. Considering the differing prevalence of orthodontic treatment need based on normative index and self-perceived index, it is essential to improve the people's awareness of malocclusion and its side effects on their oral and general health.
Keywords: Dental aesthetic, index of orthodontic treatment need, Iran, meta-analysis
|How to cite this article:|
Eslamipour F, Afshari Z, Najimi A. Prevalence of orthodontic treatment need in permanent dentition of Iranian population: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Dent Res J 2018;15:1-10
|How to cite this URL:|
Eslamipour F, Afshari Z, Najimi A. Prevalence of orthodontic treatment need in permanent dentition of Iranian population: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Dent Res J [serial online] 2018 [cited 2019 Jan 16];15:1-10. Available from: http://www.drjjournal.net/text.asp?2018/15/1/1/223616
| Introduction|| |
Malocclusion is a common health problem and can affect the psychosocial well-being in the long term. Prevention and treatment of this developmental disorder need a rational planning of oral health aiming at orthodontic cares,, and comprehensive data about malocclusion such as prevalence are necessary in this regard. Assessment of malocclusion in a community can show only the prevalence of different degrees of deviation from normal occlusion, some of which have no need for any treatment. However, when changes in normal occlusion affect the function and aesthetics, the need for orthodontic treatment becomes more evident. Therefore, evaluation of orthodontic treatment need by indices seems to be necessary. Among several indices developed for this purpose,, the index of orthodontic treatment need (IOTN) and dental aesthetic index (DAI) are universally acceptable and have been more frequently used in epidemiological studies. The IOTN ranks malocclusion in terms of the significance of various occlusal traits for an individual's dental health and perceived aesthetic impairment, aiming at identifying those individuals who will most likely benefit from an orthodontic treatment. The index has two components: aesthetic and dental health. The aesthetic component of IOTN is a self-perceived index of dental attractiveness which can help us to evaluate changes of attractiveness by malocclusions. The DAI links the clinical and aesthetic components mathematically to produce a single score that combines the physical and aesthetic aspects of occlusion, which reflects malocclusion severity and orthodontic treatment need.
In Iran, in particular, many epidemiological studies have been carried out on this subject. A literature review of national documents showed orthodontic treatment need varied from 1.58% to 48.2% in different cities of Iran. In Tehran, Safavi et al. reported 20% definite orthodontic treatment need by IOTN in 5200 adolescents aged 14–16 years. Borzabadi-Farahani et al. showed 36% of adolescents in Isfahan needed orthodontic treatment. Another study conducted by Oshagh et al. in Shiraz using DAI showed that 20.4% of 1818 adolescents had high orthodontic treatment need. Furthermore, Eslamipour et al. reported 20% orthodontic treatment need among 728 adolescents in Isfahan using DAI.
Yet, there is no comprehensive report about this subject. A meta-analysis can provide valuable data on the prevalence of orthodontic treatment need as a component of oral health status of Iranian population, which seems to be useful for policy making and program planning in oral public health system. Thus, the present study was aimed to undertake a meta-analysis to systematically review existing evidence on the prevalence of orthodontic treatment need in Iran.
| Materials and Methods|| |
Literature search methods included scouring original articles in the following electronic databases: PubMed, Scopus, Google scholar, and national database including Iranian Scientific Information Database, indexing article published in Iranian biomedical journals (Iran Medex), Magiran which index thesis abstracts and articles up to November 2015. Searching for articles was performed by two independent researchers according to search strategy shown in [Table 1]. Search terms included “orthodontic treatment need, index of orthodontic treatment need, prevalence, permanent dentition, Iran, and cross-sectional studies.”
In addition, the references of the included studies were searched for further relevant studies. Handsearching was also performed using Iran doc and National Library and Archives of Islamic Republic of Iran, for available theses, dissertations, and unpublished articles.
Selection of studies
The selection process was performed by two investigators (F.E and Z.A) in a two-step approach independently. After excluding duplicated articles, at first step, abstracts of all matched articles were reviewed for exclusion of those clearly not related to our purpose. The second phase consisted of detailed full-text analysis of the screened eligible studies. Descriptive studies which assessed treatment need using IOTN or DAI in Iranian population aged 11–35 years old are included in full-text analysis and exclusion criteria's are epidemiological studies on orthodontic treatment needs in primary or mixed dentition, studies which samples were chosen among syndromic or specific patients, studies conducted on population referred for orthodontic treatment to oral health centers, and studies which conducted on other nationality who lives in Iran.
After selecting the articles, assessing the risk of bias of studies was conducted using Modified STROBE checklist. This checklist contains 12 questions which are listed in [Table 2] which covered various aspects of the methodology such as sample size, study design, sampling method, population, data collection methods and tools, examining samples method, statistical analysis, aim of the study, way of reporting findings, and reporting findings based on objectives. Each study was awarded a score of 0 to 12. If a study achieved less than 8 point, it is omitted from meta-analysis. All retrieved full-length articles were evaluated for inclusion in the evidence base against a list of inclusion criteria independently by two trained reviewers. A third reviewer facilitated article reassessment and discussion to resolve conflicts.
Data extraction from the included articles was performed by one of the reviewers. The following information was extracted from every included original article: the first author, year of publication, the city where the study conducted, the total number of samples, the number of samples by sex if reported, and the prevalence of each component of indices of IOTN or DAI. Both components of IOTN categorized orthodontic treatment need in 3 groups: no need, borderline need, and severe need. DAI divided treatment need into 4 groups: no need, borderline need, definite need, and severe need.
A comprehensive meta-analysis (V2.2, Biostat) was used to conduct the meta-analysis. A stratified analysis was conducted in accordance with 3 groups of DHC and AC components of IOTN and 4 groups of DAI. Fixed effects or random effects models were selected based on the heterogeneity shown by the Chi-square based Q test and I2 statistic. Since the distribution of values in all of the meta-analyses exhibited significant heterogeneity, we used a random effects model for all meta-analyses. Publication bias was assessed by funnel plot, Egger's weighted regression, and Begg's rank correlation methods. After exclusion, a sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of sample size on the pooled prevalence. If the outcome was significantly changed after one study was removed, then the study was excluded from the included studies due to selection bias, and a new analysis was conducted. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant for all analyses.
| Results|| |
The result of search in national and international databases was 443 articles which completed by 2 articles of handsearching. After excluding irrelevant and duplicated articles, evaluating the relevancy of titles and abstracts was done and finally 27 articles selected. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 24 articles remained [Figure 1]. Five articles measured only DAI, 17 articles used IOTN, and 2 of them used both DAI and aesthetic component of IOTN for measuring orthodontic treatment need [Table 3] and [Table 4].
|Table 3: Included studies in meta-analysis that recorded orthodontic treatment need based on index of orthodontic treatment need|
Click here to view
|Table 4: Included studies in meta-analysis that recorded orthodontic treatment need based on dental aesthetic index|
Click here to view
All of these 24 articles after evaluation and qualification by the checklist were included in meta-analysis. A total number of participants in articles using DAI were 5914 and about IOTN were 17,977. Some of studies did not report data in detail. Access to main data in these researches was done by making connection with correspondent authors.
Findings from meta-analysis
The meta-analysis showed that the prevalence of mandatory need to orthodontic treatment according to DHC of IOTN (grade 4 and 5) was 23.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 19.5%–28.7%) and patients who had no need and borderline need for orthodontic treatment were 44.5% (95% CI: 38.4%–50.7%) and 25.3% (95% CI: 23.1%–27.6%), respectively [Figure 2] and [Figure 3]. The results of AC of IOTN showed that only 5.2% (95% CI: 3.4%–7.8) of children perceived orthodontic treatment need and 82% of them satisfied from their dental attractiveness [Table 5] and [Figure 4],[Figure 5].
|Figure 2: Forest plot of no need to orthodontic treatment based on DHC (Grade 1, 2).|
Click here to view
|Figure 3: Forest plot of great orthodontic treatment need based on DHC (Grade 4, 5).|
Click here to view
|Table 5: Pooled prevalence of orthodontic treatment need according to index of orthodontic treatment need|
Click here to view
|Figure 4: Forest plot of no need to orthodontic treatment based on AC (Grade 1-4).|
Click here to view
|Figure 5: Forest plot of great orthodontic treatment need based on AC (Grade 8-10).|
Click here to view
According to DAI, 16.1% (CI 95%: 12.3%–20.8%) of children had definite need to orthodontic treatment (DAI > 31) [Table 6] and [Figure 6],[Figure 7]. The maximum prevalence is related to no need in each index.
|Table 6: Pooled prevalence of orthodontic treatment need according to dental aesthetic index|
Click here to view
|Figure 6: Forest plot of no need to orthodontic treatment based on DAI (Score 13-25).|
Click here to view
|Figure 7: Forest plot of definite orthodontic need based on DAI (Score >31).|
Click here to view
Significant publication bias was found in DHC (no need), AC (no need and borderline need), and DAI (definite need) (P < 0.05 in both Egger's and Begg's analysis). The results were reported after trim and fill procedure was applied to correct publication bias.
| Discussion|| |
Management of malocclusion is carried out by a number of disciplines in dentistry, particularly orthodontics, and its priority can be measured by IOTN and DAI, which is related to treatment need rather than its complexity.
In epidemiological surveys of malocclusion, it is important to gather accurate and reliable data about orthodontic treatment need. These data can then be used for policy making of health-care systems and resource planning purposes or for evaluating the effectiveness of orthodontic care services. Indices of orthodontic treatment need have the potential for both acquiring descriptive data on the distribution of treatment need in populations (epidemiological use) and establishing priorities for treatment (administrative use). This systematic review and meta-analysis was undertaken to assess existing evidence on the prevalence of orthodontic treatment need in Iran.
Based on the results of this study, orthodontic treatment need was found to have a prevalence of 16.1% according to DAI. Studies conducted in Asia reported 12.8% and 24.1% orthodontic treatment need in India  and Malaysia  according to DAI, respectively, which was relatively close to the results obtained in Iran. But in African countries, the prevalence was up to 44.7%. In American countries, studies reported a prevalence of 53.2% and 32.8% in Brazil,, which is higher than the prevalence rate in Iran. According to the results of DHC-IOTN, the prevalence of Iranian orthodontic treatment need was similar to that of European countries such as Italy (27.3%), Serbia (27.4%), and Spain (21.8%). Studies conducted on the prevalence of orthodontic treatment need according to AC-IOTN showed self-perceived need of 2% in London, 7.1% in Brazil  and 4.4% in Spain, which were similar to the prevalence rate in Iran (4.8%). However, the prevalence rates of Eastern Asian countries such as Malaysia (22.8%) and Africa (more than 10%), were higher than that of Iran [Table 7].
|Table 7: Distribution of orthodontic treatment need in different ethnic groups|
Click here to view
According to the obtained results, people's self-assessment of their dental appearance is different from a professional assessment. It is because professional measures (DHC-IOTN and DAI) evaluate all dental aspects, including missing, diastema, crowding, crossbite, overjet, and open bite. Meanwhile, the self-assessment measure (AC-IOTN) only focuses on the attractiveness of anterior dental appearance at smile. Hence, these indices show different aspects of orthodontic treatment need, all of which can be used to complement each other in epidemiologic surveys and diagnostic procedures.
Previous studies have shown a high correlation and diagnostic agreement between AC (IOTN) and DAI., In their study in Iran, Borzabadi-Farahani et al. reported a statistically significant association between DAI and AC scores (rho = 0.795). This result was expected since both indices are heavily based on the aesthetic aspects of occlusion.
One of the limitations of this meta-analysis was lack of studies in different geographic regions of Iran; hence, more epidemiologic studies about orthodontic treatment need are suggested to be carried out in different regions of Iran.
Another limitation was a few studies on orthodontic treatment need according to DAI in Iran.
| Conclusion|| |
The majority of Iranian population were categorized in no-need group with regard to orthodontic treatment need. According to DHC, nearly one-fourth of the population would have a mandatory need for orthodontic treatment. Using DAI, less than one-fourth (16%) of samples had an increasing need for orthodontic treatment. If the AC scores were used as a self-perceived index, the treatment need would decrease to 5% among the samples. To sum up, Iranian population had more orthodontic treatment need than they perceived, and the majority of them were satisfied with their dental appearance. On the other hand, the majority of them perceived themselves as attractive with regard to their dental appearance.
We would like to thank all of participants who help us to conducting this study. Based on a thesis submitted to the school of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the DDS/MSC degree, this study was supported by Isfahan University of Medical Sciences Research (Grant No. 3941024).
Financial support and sponsorship
This study was supported by Isfahan University of Medical Sciences Research (Grant No. 3941024).
Conflicts of interest
The authors of this manuscript declared that they have no conflicts of interest, real or perceived, financial or nonfinancial in this article.
| References|| |
Borzabadi-Farahani A. A review of the oral health-related evidence that supports the orthodontic treatment need indices. Prog Orthod 2012;13:314-25.
Jenny J, Cons NC. Comparing and contrasting two orthodontic indices, the index of orthodontic treatment need and the dental aesthetic index. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1996;110:410-6.
Väkiparta MK, Kerosuo HM, Nyström ME, Heikinheimo KA. Orthodontic treatment need from eight to 12 years of age in an early treatment oriented public health care system: A prospective study. Angle Orthod 2005;75:344-9.
Sandhu S, Bansal N, Sandhu N. Incidence of malocclusions in India: A review. J Oral Health Community Dent 2012;6:21-4.
Traebert ES, Peres MA. Do malocclusions affect the individual's oral health-related quality of life? Oral Health Prev Dent 2007;5:3-12.
Shaw WC, Richmond S, O'Brien KD. The use of occlusal indices: A European perspective. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1995;107:1-10.
Brook PH, Shaw WC. The development of an index of orthodontic treatment priority. Eur J Orthod 1989;11:309-20.
Hunt O, Hepper P, Johnston C, Stevenson M, Burden D. The aesthetic component of the index of orthodontic treatment need validated against lay opinion. Eur J Orthod 2002;24:53-9.
Safavi SM, Sefidroodi A, Nouri M, Eslamian L, Kheirieh S, Bagheban AA, et al.
Orthodontic treatment need in 14-16 year-old tehran high school students. Aust Orthod J 2009;25:8-11.
Borzabadi-Farahani A, Borzabadi-Farahani A, Eslamipour F. The relationship between the ICON index and the dental and aesthetic components of the IOTN index. World J Orthod 2010;11:43-8.
Oshagh M, Moumeni Danaei S, Omid Khoda M, Borhan Haghighi Z, Karami Far A, Kerdegari Y. Evaluation of orthodontic treatment need according to dental aesthetic index in 14-18 year old students in the city of Shiraz in 2007. J Mashhad Univ Med Sci 2008;32:143-50.
Eslamipour F, Borzabadi-Farahani A, Asgari I. Assessment of orthodontic treatment need in 11- to 20-year-old urban Iranian children using the dental aesthetic index (DAI). World J Orthod 2010;11:e125-32.
Moosazadeh M, Nekoei-Moghadam M, Emrani Z, Amiresmaili M. Prevalence of unwanted pregnancy in iran: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Health Plann Manage 2014;29:e277-90.
Begg CB, Mazumdar M. Operating characteristics of a rank correlation test for publication bias. Biometrics 1994;50:1088-101.
Higgins JP. Commentary: Heterogeneity in meta-analysis should be expected and appropriately quantified. Int J Epidemiol 2008;37:1158-60.
Biria M, Eslami Amirabadi G, Nazari R. The evaluation of orthodontic treatment need for 12-13 years students of Gorgan City with using IOTN index. Shahid Beheshti Univ Dent J 2005;23:225-33.
Fayaz Monfared H, Hamze M. Assessment of prevalence of need and demand to orthodontic treatment in guidance school students of Kerman city in 2005-2006. Rafsanjan Univ Med Sci 2007;6:67-76.
Hedayati Z, Fattahi HR, Jahromi SB. The use of index of orthodontic treatment need in an Iranian population. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2007;25:10-4.
] [Full text]
Feizbakhsh M, Omrani A, Teimori F, Mirlohi F. Orthodontic treatment needs of 14-18 year-old female students of Isfahan in 2009-2010 using IOTN index. J Isfahan Dent Sch 2011;7:47-52.
Feyzbakhsh M, Khadem P, Sarandi S, Teimouri F, Aslan F, Dadgar S. Orthodontic treatment needs of 14-18 year-old male students of Isfahan (Iran) in 2009-2010 using IOTN index. J Mash Dent Sch 2013;37:145-52.
Omid Khoda M, Morteza O, Shahla M, Ladan Z. Orthodontic treatment need in 18-14 year old students in Shiraz. Shiraz Univ Dent J 2009;10:136-43.
Asgari I, Ebn Ahmady A, Khoshnevisan MH, Eslamipour F. Evaluation of the patient-based indices for orthodontic need assessment in the 13 to 18 year-old adolescents in Isfahan. J Dent Med 2012;25:124-34.
Hosseinzadeh Nik T, Shahsavari N, Gholami D, Fattahi Meibodi A, Nourozi S. Evaluation the need and demand of orthodontic treatment in 12 years old school students in Abade, Iran. Iran J Epidemiol 2011;7:44-50.
Nik TH, Nourozi S, Fard MK, Noroozi H. The relationship between patient, parent and orthodontic treatment need and demand in 17-year-old studentsresiding in Abade/Iran. J Dent Tehran Univ Med Sci 2007;4:107-14.
Oshagh M, Salehi P, Pakshir H, Bazyar L, Rakhshan V. Associations between normative and self-perceived orthodontic treatment needs in young-adult dental patients. Korean J Orthod 2011;41:440-6.
Eslamipour F, Riahi Dehkordi A, Etemadi Shalamzari M. Comparative Survey of Self-Perceived Indices for Orthodontic Treatment Need Determination in Isfahan University Students Entered in 2010; 2011.
Shahri F, Ansari Moghadam A, Eshaghi A. Assessment of Orthodontic Treatment Need Using IOTN Index in 11-14 Year-Old Student of Zahedan in 2010; 2011.
Markazi Moghadam M, Moghimbeigi A, Jafari F. Evaluation of orthodontic treatment needs in a population of Iranian schoolchildren using the IOTN in 2010. Avicenna J Dent Res 2011;3:35-43.
Jamilian A, Toliat M, Etezad S. Prevalence of malocclusion and index of orthodontic treatment need in children in tehran. Oral Health Prev Dent 2010;8:339-43.
Borzabadi-Farahani A, Eslamipour F, Asgari I. A comparison of two orthodontic aesthetic indices. Aust Orthod J 2012;28:30-6.
Eslamipour F, Asgari I, Farzaneh Khoo AR. Frequency of dental anomalies and the need for orthodontic treatment in 12-19 year-old adolescents in Isfahan. J Isfahan Dent Sch 2011;6:543-52.
Eslamipour F, Asgari I, Tabesh A. Orthodontic treatment need and oral health related quality of life in students in Isfahan. Beheshti Univ Dent J 2014;32:124-33.
Danaei SM, Amirrad F, Salehi P. Orthodontic treatment needs of 12-15-year-old students in Shiraz, Islamic Republic of Iran. East Mediterr Health J 2007;13:326-34.
KhanehMasjedi M, Bassir L, Haghighizadeh M. Evaluation of relationship between orthodontic treatment need according dental aesthetic index (DAI) and student's perception in 11-14 year old students in the city of Ahwaz in 2005. J Mashhad Dent Sch Mashhad Univ Med Sci 2007;31:37-46.
Koochmeshgi L, Hosseinzadeh Nik T, Kharrazi Fard M. Assesment of prevalence of dentofacial deformity and orthodontic treatment need in 12 year old students of Karaj. Iran J Epidemiol 2007;3:29-34.
Danaee SM, Fijan S, Mohammadi N, Zadeh RS. Evaluation of relationship between orthodontic treatment need according dental aesthetic index (DAI) and student's perception in 11-14 year old students in the city of Shiraz in 2012. Int J Res Med Sci 2015;3:1056-60.
Jha K, Saha S, Gv J, Narang R, Biswas G, Sood P, et al.
Prevalence of malocclusion and its psycho-social impact among 12 to 15-year-old school children in Lucknow city. J Clin Diagn Res 2014;8:ZC36-9.
Abdullah MS, Rock WP. Assessment of orthodontic treatment need in 5,112 malaysian children using the IOTN and DAI indices. Community Dent Health 2001;18:242-8.
Utomi IL, Onyeaso CO. Malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need of patients attending the lagos university teaching hospital, Lagos, Nigeria. Odontostomatol Trop 2015;38:23-30.
de Almeida AB, Leite IC. Orthodontic treatment need for Brazilian schoolchildren: A study using the dental aesthetic index. Dental Press J Orthod 2013;18:103-9.
Freitas CV, Souza JG, Mendes DC, Pordeus IA, Jones KM, Martins AM, et al.
Need for orthodontic treatment among Brazilian adolescents: Evaluation based on public health. Rev Paul Pediatr 2015;33:204-10.
Perillo L, Masucci C, Ferro F, Apicella D, Baccetti T. Prevalence of orthodontic treatment need in Southern Italian schoolchildren. Eur J Orthod 2010;32:49-53.
Janošević P, Stošić M, Janošević M, Radojičić J, Filipović G, Čutović T, et al.
Index of orthodontic treatment need in children from the Niš region. Vojnosanit Pregl 2015;72:12-5.
Manzanera D, Montiel-Company JM, Almerich-Silla JM, Gandía JL. Orthodontic treatment need in Spanish schoolchildren: An epidemiological study using the index of orthodontic treatment need. Eur J Orthod 2009;31:180-3.
Alkhatib MN, Bedi R, Foster C, Jopanputra P, Allan S. Ethnic variations in orthodontic treatment need in London schoolchildren. BMC Oral Health 2005;5:8.
Mugonzibwa EA, Kuijpers-Jagtman AM, Van 't Hof MA, Kikwilu EN. Perceptions of dental attractiveness and orthodontic treatment need among Tanzanian children. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2004;125:426-33.
Puertes-Fernández N, Montiel-Company JM, Almerich-Silla JM, Manzanera D. Orthodontic treatment need in a 12-year-old population in the Western Sahara. Eur J Orthod 2011;33:377-80.
van Wyk PJ, Drummond RJ. Orthodontic status and treatment need of 12-year-old children in South Africa using the dental aesthetic index. SADJ 2005;60:334-6, 338.
Josefsson E, Bjerklin K, Lindsten R. Malocclusion frequency in swedish and immigrant adolescents – Influence of origin on orthodontic treatment need. Eur J Orthod 2007;29:79-87.
Otuyemi OD, Noar JH. A comparison between DAI and SCAN in estimating orthodontic treatment need. Int Dent J 1996;46:35-40.
Shue-Te Yeh M, Koochek AR, Vlaskalic V, Boyd R, Richmond S. The relationship of 2 professional occlusal indexes with patients' perceptions of aesthetics, function, speech, and orthodontic treatment need. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2000;118:421-8.
[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7]
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7]