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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 15  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 185-190

Detection of aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin and fimbria-associated protein gene genotypes among periodontitis patients and healthy controls: A case–control study


1 Department of Microbiology and Research Lab for Oral-Systemic Health, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Microbiology, Dr. ALM PGIBMS, University of Madras, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
3 Department of Periodontics and Implantology, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Padma Krishnan
Department of Microbiology Dr. ALM PGIBMS, University of Madras, Chennai - 600 113, Tamil Nadu
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1735-3327.231861

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Background: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans has been reported in higher proportions in subgingival microbiota of individuals with aggressive periodontitis (AgP) compared with those with chronic periodontitis (ChP) and healthy controls. The major virulence factors are the ones that help in colonization and evasion of host's defenses. Hence, this study was aimed to assess the prevalence of A. actinomycetemcomitans 16S rRNA and its virulent genotypes (leukotoxin [lktA] and fimbria-associated protein [fap]). Materials and Methods: In this case– control study We performed periodontal examination and measured probing depth and clinical attachment level (CAL). Subgingival plaque samples from 200 (ChP: n = 128 and AgP: n = 72) periodontitis patients and 200 healthy controls were screened for the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans 16S rRNA, lktA, and fap genotypes by polymerase chain reaction. The prevalence of genotypes between periodontitis patients and healthy controls was compared with Pearson's Chi-square test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Mean pocket probing depth and CAL were high as compared to the healthy controls. The prevalence of A. actinomycetemcomitans in ChP (n = 128), AgP (n = 72), and healthy individuals (n = 200) was 32.0%, 61.1%, and 2.5%, respectively. A. actinomycetemcomitans lktA genotype prevalence was 71.8% among periodontitis patients, while A. actinomycetemcomitans fap genotype showed 31.8% prevalence. The prevalence of these genotypes was insignificant in healthy controls. Conclusion: The high odds ratio for A. actinomycetemcomitans prevalence suggests its strong link to periodontitis. Detection of A. actinomycetemcomitans lktA + genotype may be a useful marker for AgP as its prevalence was found to be high in AgP.


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