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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 15  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 397-403

Antimicrobial assay of combination surfactant irrigant regimen on vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis. An in vitro direct contact test


1 Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, ABSMIDS, NITTE University, Mangaluru, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Microbiology, ABSMIDS, NITTE University, Mangaluru, Karnataka, India
3 Department of Biochemistry, ABSMIDS, NITTE University, Mangaluru, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Manikandan Ravinanthanan
Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, PMS College of Dental Science and Research, Vattappara, Trivandrum, Kerala
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1735-3327.245231

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Background: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are on the rise globally in primary intraradicular infections and resistant to most intracanal irrigants and medicaments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of irrigants and identify a cost-effective regimen to eradicate VRE. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study irrigants were categorized as primary and surfactant groups with individual concentrations consisting of 10 samples each. Primary irrigants; sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), chlorhexidine (CHX), and iodine potassium iodide (IKI) were prepared in concentrations of 5%, 2.5%, 2%, and 1%. Surfactants cetrimide (CTR) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were prepared in concentrations of 0.25%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2%. Biopure MTAD was chosen as the control group. ATCC 51299 (VRE) was evaluated for antimicrobial susceptibility to the above irrigants by direct contact test for 5 min. The effect of each test irrigant was determined by calculating the percentage kill of viable bacteria by spectrophotometer. Statistical analysis was done by means of a one-way ANOVA and Mann–Whitney U-test (P < 0.05 consider significant). Results: About 2.5% and 5% CHX were significant over mixture of tetracycline, acid and detergent (MTAD) (P < 0.05). 5% CHX could achieve 100% elimination while 2.5% CHX and 5% IKI had 99.90%. 2% CHX and 2.5% IKI had 99% effective kill percentage. All concentrations of NaOCl were ineffective (90%) as compared to MTAD (95%). CTR (0.5%, 1% and 2%) and SDS (2%) were significant (P < 0.05) over MTAD. Combination surfactant regimens of 2% CHX +0.5% CTR and 2% CHX +1% SDS achieved 99.90% eradication potential and were significant (P < 0.05) over MTAD. Conclusion: Surfactant regimens were highly effective and superior to MTAD. CTR and SDS by their organic solvent property enhanced the antibacterial action of CHX.


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