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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 209-215

In vivo study on the release of nickel, chromium, and zinc in saliva and serum from patients treated with fixed orthodontic appliances


1 Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Srinivas Institute of Dental Sciences, Mangalore, India
2 Department of Orthodontics, A. B. Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental Sciences, Mangalore, India
3 Department of Biochemistry, K. S. Hegde Medical Academy, Mangalore, India
4 Department of Public Health Dentistry, SEGI University, Malaysia
5 Department of Prosthodontics, AFMC, Pune, MUHS, Nashik, India
6 Department of Periodontics, SEGI University, Malaysia

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Dilip Daniel Quadras
Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Srinivas Institute of Dental Sciences, Mangalore - 575 018
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1735-3327.261155

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Background: Fixed orthodontic appliances can release metal ions such as nickel, chromium, and zinc into saliva and blood, which can cause contact dermatitis, hypersensitivity, and cytotoxicity. This study was undertaken to assess the release of nickel, chromium, and zinc in saliva and serum of patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: This in vivo study was conducted on 80 participants with an age range of 15–40 years. Thirty were included as controls and 50 participants were treated with fixed orthodontic appliances. Saliva and blood samples were collected at five different periods, before insertion of fixed orthodontic appliance and at 1 week, 3 months, 1 year, and 1.5 years after insertion of appliance, respectively. The metal ion content in the samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Mean levels of nickel, chromium, and zinc in saliva and serum were compared between groups using independent sample t-test and before and after results using paired t-test. P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: At the end of 1.5 years, the mean salivary levels of nickel, chromium, and zinc in controls were 5.02 ppb, 1.27 ppb, and 10.24 ppb, respectively, as compared to 67 ppb, 30.8 ppb, and 164.7 ppb at the end of 1.5 years. This was statistically significant with P < 0.001. A significant increase in the metal ion levels were seen in participants with before and after insertion of appliance (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Orthodontic appliances do release considerable amounts of metal ions such as nickel, chromium, and zinc in saliva and serum. However, it was within permissible levels and did not reach toxic levels.


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