Home About us Editorial board Ahead of print Current issue Search Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 
  • Users Online: 1554
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page


 
 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 327-332

Angiogenesis in odontogenic keratocyst and dentigerous cyst: Evaluation of JunB and VEGF expression


1 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, Tehran Medical Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
2 Dentist, Tehran, Iran

Date of Web Publication5-Sep-2019

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Sareh Farhadi
No.:9, 9th Neyestan Street, Pasdaran Street, Tehran
Iran
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1735-3327.266092

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 


Background: Nowadays, different clinical behaviors of odontogenic cysts, little information about their biological agents, importance of diagnosis, and early diagnosis of these lesions have encouraged the researchers to conduct new studies. JunB acts as a regulator of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein production and affects vessel proliferation and tissue angiogenesis. Hence, this study was conducted to compare angiogenesis through VEGF and JunB expression in odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) and dentigerous cysts (DCs).
Materials and Methods: A total of 25 paraffin blocks of OKCs and 25 DCs were included in this experimental descriptive cross-sectional study, and immunohistochemical expression of VEGF and JunB was evaluated. Percentage and score of expression were recorded for each sample, and independent t-test, Mann–Whitney U, and Spearman statistical tests were run to analyze the data. The statistical significance level was set at <0.05.
Results: From 50 studied samples, 39.6% belonged to women and 60.4% belonged to men, with mean age of 34.2 ± 1.7 years. The mean percentages of JunB expression were 52.88 ± 17.35 and 74.6 ± 18.55 for DC and OKC samples, respectively. This expression was significantly higher in OKC than DC, and it had significantly higher scores as well (P= P = 0.0001 and 0.00033, respectively). The means of VEGF were 20.2% ±11.86 and 52.6% ±19.98 in DC and OKC samples, respectively. The mean VEGF expression was significantly higher in OKC than DC (P = 0.045), and it had significantly higher scores, too (P = 0.000). Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between VEGF and JunB expression in the studied samples (rs = 0.3 and P= 0.005).
Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it seems evaluation of angiogenesis through JunB expression can be helpful in the prediction of more aggressive behavior in pathologic lesions such as OKC.

Keywords: Angiogenesis, dentigerous cyst, JunB, odontogenic cysts, vascular endothelial growth factor


How to cite this article:
Sadri D, Farhadi S, Nourmohamadi P. Angiogenesis in odontogenic keratocyst and dentigerous cyst: Evaluation of JunB and VEGF expression. Dent Res J 2019;16:327-32

How to cite this URL:
Sadri D, Farhadi S, Nourmohamadi P. Angiogenesis in odontogenic keratocyst and dentigerous cyst: Evaluation of JunB and VEGF expression. Dent Res J [serial online] 2019 [cited 2019 Sep 20];16:327-32. Available from: http://www.drjjournal.net/text.asp?2019/16/5/327/266092




  Introduction Top


Dentigerous cyst (DC) is one of the most common developmental odontogenic cysts with good prognosis and little recurrence, which constitutes approximately 20% of oral cavity cysts. Odontogenic keratocyst (OKCs) has histopathological characteristics, specific clinical practice and high recurrence tendency and aggressive behavior so that some resources categorize it as a part of odontogenic tumors and rename it keratocystic odontogenic tumor.[1],[2],[3],[4],[5] Due to the specific clinical behavior of this cyst, which affects the treatment selection, it is very important to identify and treat it timely.

The need for new studies seems necessary due to different clinical behaviors of odontogenic cysts, little information regarding their biological agents as well as the importance of diagnosis, early treatment for prevention or at least reduction of recrudescence possibility and malignity changes in them. In this regard, recent studies have demonstrated that blood vessel density of these lesions contributes to their biologic behaviors. Today, new treatments are strengthened by the reduction of blood vessel density of lesions.[6] The study of vessel density is performed by different methods of immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining and survey of indication of various vessel markers.

JunB is defined as a member of transcription factor family activator protein and a critical regulator and expression of inflammatory modulators in fibroblasts and T lymphocytes.[7],[8] Quantitative analysis of PCR has shown that JunB regulates the multiple genes of tumor-related aggression and angiogenesis such as matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2), MMP9, and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 in 786-O cells. In addition, reduction of JunB prevents the tumor growth in xenograft tissue.[9] The other resources state that the lack of JunB expression in different types of cells with stabilized hypoxia-inducible factor leads to very weak vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression.

VEGF is a multifunctional cytokine that expresses in different situations and has a role in increasing vascular permeability and angiogenesis, thereby stimulating the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells.[10] This cytokine is produced by different kinds of cells and operates as a main regulator of physiologic and pathologic angiogenesis.[11],[12]

JunB acts as a VEGF production protein regulator and influences vessel proliferation and tissue angiogenesis.[13],[14],[15],[16],[17] So far, JunB and effect on biologic agents have been studied in some pathologic lesions such as psoriasis,[18] melanoma, and lung carcinoma, which has provided different results regarding the relevance of JunB expression and more aggressive biologic agents in the above lesions.[19] To the best of our knowledge, this expression has not been studied in odontogenic cysts, yet. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate and compare VEGF and JunB expression and to investigate their correlation in OKC and DC.


  Materials and Methods Top


Paraffin blocks of 25 DCs and 25 OKCs registered at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Islamic Azad University, Tehran branch, were included in this experimental, descriptive cross-sectional study. From the selected blocks, 4-μm sections were prepared for hematoxylin and eosin staining. An oral and maxillofacial pathologist reexamined the related slides. All samples had a definite histopathologic diagnosis, appropriate fixation, and sufficient tissue. Samples with hemorrhage, inflammation, and necrosis and those without sufficient information were eliminated from the study.

In this experimental study, Streptavidin-Biotin IHC method using JunB Antibody (C-11, Santa Cruze, CA, U. S. A) was applied based on the manufacturer's instructions to evaluate JunB expression and VEGF-VGI antibody (DAKO, Denmark).

Afterward, 4-μm sections were prepared for IHC staining. The mentioned sections were first immersed in xylene to remove the paraffin (dewax) and then in graded alcohols to dehydrate. To inhibit peroxide activity, the samples were placed in 3% hydrogen peroxide with phosphate buffer. The antigen retrieval process was performed in a microwave under the pressure of 2 atmospheres (atm) at 120°C for 10 min with exposure to the primary antibody for 30 min and then to secondary antibody (15 min), DAB (staining reaction), and Mayer's hematoxylin (background staining).

The sections of colon adenocarcinoma and normal lymph nodes were taken as a positive control for JunB expression,[20],[21] and placental tissues were considered positive control for VEGF expression.[22]

After the preparation of procedure, the evaluation of tissue sections was performed by oral pathologist using optical microscope (Japan, Nikon-YS 100) through the examination of five fields of cyst wall with maximum effective staining (hot spots) at ×100 magnification. Then, nuclear and/or cytoplasmic stained cells with JunB were observed at ×400 magnification, as follows: JunB expression in <5% of cells of cyst wall was considered (0), in 5%–45% of cells (1), in more than 45%–90% of cells (2), and in more than 90%–100% of cells (3).[19]

Evaluating the nuclear and/or cytoplasmic expression of VEGF was performed by the method proposed by Rubini et al.[22] In summary, the VEGF incidence by counting the stained cells included epithelial cells, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells in five microscopic fields. The mean percentage of positive cells in each sample was reported and categorized as follows:

  • Score 0: 10% of cells or less showed VEGF staining
  • Score 1: 10%–50% of cells showed VEGF staining
  • Score 2: more than 50% of cells showed VEGF staining.


[Figure 1] and [Figure 2] show the tissue sections of DCs and OKCs with JunB expression, and [Figure 3] and [Figure 4] reveal the sections of these lesions with VEGF expression.
Figure 1: JunB expression in dentigerous cyst under, ×200.

Click here to view
Figure 2: JunB expression in odontogenic keratocyst under, ×400.

Click here to view
Figure 3: Vascular endothelial growth factor expression in dentigerous cyst under, ×400.

Click here to view
Figure 4: Vascular endothelial growth factor expression in odontogenic keratocyst under, ×400.

Click here to view


To compare the marker expression in two study groups, independent sample t-test was applied. Furthermore, Mann–Whitney U and Spearman tests were run to compare marker expression in two study groups and to evaluate the correlation of these two markers. The level of significance was considered <0.05.


  Results Top


A total of 50 samples, 39.6% women and 60.4% men with a mean age of 34.2 ± 1.7 years were evaluated in this study. The mean percentages of JunB expression were 52.88 ± 17.35 and 74.6 ± 18.55 for DC and OKC samples, respectively.

Furthermore, the description of JunB score is presented in [Table 1].
Table 1: Comparison of JunB expression score in odontogenic keratocysts and dentigerous cysts

Click here to view


There is statistically significant difference in JunB expression percentage between DC and OKC (P = 0.0001). Moreover, the results of Mann–Whitney test showed a significant difference between the above groups in JunB score (P = 0.0003).

The means of VEGF were 20.2% ± 11.86% and 52.6% ± 19.98 in DC and OKC samples, respectively. The expression of VEGF in these two cysts was found to be significantly different, expression of VEGF being significantly higher in OKC than DC (P = 0.045). [Table 2] presents the description of VEGF scores in the evaluated samples.
Table 2: Comparison of vascular density base on vascular endothelial growth factor score in odontogenic keratocysts and dentigerous cysts

Click here to view


There was statistically significant difference between the two cysts in the terms of VEGF score (P = 0.000). That is OKC samples had significantly higher VEGF score than DC.

In addition, there was a significant correlation between VEGF and JunB expression in the studied samples (rs = 0.3, P= 0.005).


  Discussion Top


There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups of DC and OKC from the viewpoint of JunB expression percentage and related scores.

Mao et al.[23] studied primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (PCL) and found a correlation between JunB expression pattern and progression of PCL. They suggested that JunB may be a critical factor involved in pathogenesis. Moreover, Schmidt D et al.[13] in their study on critical role of inspired JunB by NF-kappaB in VEGF regulation and tumor angiogenesis reported that JunB nonexpression caused disorder in VEGF expression. They finally concluded that tumor angiogenesis was disrupted in teratocarcinoma which did not reveal JunB. On the other hand, Kanno et al.[9] carried out a study on the role of JunB in cell invasion advancement and angiogenesis in renal cell carcinoma and concluded that JunB encouraged tumor invasion and increased angiogenesis. In a study on the significance of Jun transcription factors in ovarian cancer prognosis, Eckhoff et al.[24] reported that JunD and pc-Jun proteins were effective in carcinogenesis and tumor advancement, which suggested an important predictive role in ovarian cancer although there was no correlation between JunB expression and general survival and independent survival advancement. Moreover, JunB was not evidently associated with any clinicopathologic parameters. In a study on comparison of JunB expression profile, JunC, and S100A8 in psoriasis guttate, Park et al.[18] showed the reduction of JunB expression in both kinds of psoriasis compared with normal mucosa.

JunB as a member of Jun family and a biomodulator is identified in the expression of inflammatory intermediates.[7],[8] PCR analysis has also shown that JunB regulates multiple genes related to tumor invasion and angiogenesis from metalloproteinase matrix family such as MMP2.9. JunB reduction significantly prevents tumor growth and angiogenesis as well.

JunB has been introduced as a cell proliferation marker, especially angiogenesis regulator, through influence on the inspiration of VEGF.[25],[26] It has also been revealed that the lack of JunB in different types of cells leads to very weak VEGF expression and postponed cell growth.[10] Studies have reported JunB as an independent regulator of VEGF, and impact of angiogenesis has been considered very important in invasive growth of pathologic lesions such as malignant cells. On the other hand, significant results have been reported in other resources regarding vascular marker expression, for example, VEGF in more invasive pathologic lesions such as malignancies. Some studies have been conducted on pathologic lesions such as cysts, particularly odontogenic cysts, which have shown angiogenesis process and related agents seem necessary for the growth of pathologic lesions.[27],[28],[29],[30],[31],[32],[33] Based on the results of previous studies,[14],[15],[16],[17],[18],[19],[20] the possible impact of JunB expression on the invasive behavior of pathologic lesions through its influence on VEGF can be evaluated.

Moreover, JunB expression has been found to significantly increase in more advanced processes and more invasive pathologic lesions. To the best of our knowledge, there is no research regarding the evaluation of JunB expression in cysts, particularly odontogenic cysts. Hence, this study is the first one that found a significance difference between OKC and DC cysts in JunB expression.

Regarding the more invasive behavior of OKC than DC and considering JunB effect mechanism through VEGF, it seems that the evaluation of JunB expression can help predict more invasive behaviors of pathologic lesions such as OKC. However, more studies are needed to assess other effective agents involved.


  Conclusion Top


Considering the results of this study indicating that JunB expression was significantly higher in OKC than DC, it seems that the evaluation of angiogenesis through JunB expression can probably help predict more invasive behaviors of pathologic lesions such as OKC.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

The authors of this manuscript declare that they have no conflicts of interest, real or perceived, financial or nonfinancial in this article.



 
  References Top

1.
Mohajerani H, Esmaeelinejad M, Sabour S, Aghdashi F, Dehghani N. Diagnostic factors of odontogenic cysts in Iranian population: A Retrospective study over the Past two decades. Iran Red Crescent Med J 2015;17:e21793.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Demirkol M, Ege B, Yanik S, Aras MH, Ay S. Clinicopathological study of jaw cysts in Southeast region of Turkey. Eur J Dent 2014;8:107-11.  Back to cited text no. 2
  [Full text]  
3.
Johnson NR1, Gannon OM, Savage NW, Batstone MD. Frequency of odontogenic cysts and tumors: a systematic review. J Investig Clin Dent. 2014;5(1):9-14.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Bande CR, Prashant MC, Sumbh B, Pandilwar PK. Prevalence, treatment and recurrence of odontogenic keratocyst in central India. J Maxillofac Oral Surg 2010;9:146-9.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
González-Alva P, Tanaka A, Oku Y, Yoshizawa D, Itoh S, Sakashita H, et al. Keratocystic odontogenic tumor: A retrospective study of 183 cases. J Oral Sci 2008;50:205-12.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Seifi S, Shafaie S, Ghadiri S. Microvessel density in follicular cysts, keratocystic odontogenic tumours and ameloblastomas. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2011;12:351-6.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Textor B, Licht AH, Tuckermann JP, Jessberger R, Razin E, Angel P, et al. JunB is required for IgE-mediated degranulation and cytokine release of mast cells. J Immunol 2007;179:6873-80.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Farhadi S, Shahsavari F, Davardan M. The possible role of mast cells in the odontogenic cyst's pathogenesis: A Comparative study between dentigerous cyst and keratocystic odontogenic tumor. Patholog Res Int 2016;2016:8754567.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Kanno T, Kamba T, Yamasaki T, Shibasaki N, Saito R, Terada N, et al. JunB promotes cell invasion and angiogenesis in VHL-defective renal cell carcinoma. Oncogene 2012;31:3098-110.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Puthiyaveetil JS, Kota K, Chakkarayan R, Chakkarayan J, Thodiyil AK. Epithelial - mesenchymal interactions in tooth development and the significant role of growth factors and genes with emphasis on mesenchyme - A review. J Clin Diagn Res 2016;10:ZE05-ZE09.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Brown LF, Detmar M, Claffey K, Nagy JA, Feng D, Dvorak AM, et al. Vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor: A multifunctional angiogenic cytokine. E 1997;79:233-69.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Ferrara N, Davis-Smyth T. The biology of vascular endothelial growth factor. Endocr Rev 1997;18:4-25.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Schmidt D, Textor B, Pein OT, Licht AH, Andrecht S, Sator-Schmitt M, et al. Critical role for NF-kappaB-induced Junb in VEGF regulation and tumor angiogenesis. EMBO J 2007;26:710-9.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Schorpp-Kistner M, Wang ZQ, Angel P, Wagner EF. JunB is essential for mammalian placentation. EMBO J 1999;18:934-48.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Hirai SI, Ryseck RP, Mechta F, Bravo R, Yaniv M. Characterization of Jund: A new member of the Jun proto-oncogene family. EMBO J 1989;8:1433-9.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Herdegen T, Skene P, Bähr M. The c-Jun transcription factor – Bipotential mediator of neuronal death, survival and regeneration. Trends Neurosci 1997;20:227-31.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Wang H, Xie Z, Scott RE. JunD phosphorylation, and expression of AP-1 DNA binding activity modulated by serum growth factors in quiescent murine 3T3T cells. Oncogene 1996;13:2639-47.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Park CC, Kim KJ, Woo SY, Chun JH, Lee KH. Comparison of the expression profile of Junb, c-Jun, and S100A8 (Calgranulin A) in psoriasis vulgaris and guttate psoriasis. Ann Dermatol 2009;21:35-8.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Braun J, Strittmatter K, Nübel T, Komljenovic D, Sator-Schmitt M, Bäuerle T, et al. Loss of stromal JUNB does not affect tumor growth and angiogenesis. Int J Cancer 2014;134:1511-6.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Wang H, Birkenbach M, Hart J. Expression of Jun family members in human colorectal adenocarcinoma. Carcinogenesis 2000;21:1313-7.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Angel P, Szabowski A, Schorpp-Kistner M. Function and regulation of AP-1 subunits in skin physiology and pathology. Oncogene 2001;20:2413-23.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Rubini C, Artese L, Zizzi A, Fioroni M, Ascani G, Goteri G. Immunohistochemical expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in different types of odontogenic cysts. Clin Oral Investig 2011;15:757-61.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Mao X, Orchard G, Lillington DM, Russell-Jones R, Young BD, Whittaker SJ, et al. Amplification and overexpression of JUNB is associated with primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. Blood 2003;101:1513-9.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Eckhoff K, Flurschütz R, Trillsch F, Mahner S, Jänicke F, Milde-Langosch K, et al. The prognostic significance of Jun transcription factors in ovarian cancer. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2013;139:1673-80.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Jia J, Ye T, Cui P, Hua Q, Zeng H, Zhao D, et al. AP-1 transcription factor mediates VEGF-induced endothelial cell migration and proliferation. Microvasc Res 2016;105:103-8.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Yoshitomi Y, Ikeda T, Saito H, Yoshitake Y, Ishigaki Y, Hatta T, et al. JunB regulates angiogenesis and neurovascular parallel alignment in mouse embryonic skin. J Cell Sci 2017;130:916-26.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Ferrara N, Chen H, Davis-Smyth T, Gerber HP, Nguyen TN, Peers D, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor is essential for corpus luteum angiogenesis. Nat Med 1998;4:336-40.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
Sadri D, Shahsavari F, Farhadi S, Shahabi Z, Mehran Z. Angiogenesis concept in odontogenic keratocyst: A comparative study. Indian J Dent Res 2017;28:275-80.  Back to cited text no. 28
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
29.
Sadri D, Farhadi S, Shahabi Z, Sarshar S. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in odontogenic cysts: Is there any impression on clinical outcome? Open Dent J 2016;10:752-9.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.
Kumamoto H, Ohki K, Ooya K. Association between vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and tumor angiogenesis in ameloblastomas. J Oral Pathol Med 2002;31:28-34.  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.
Kademani D, Lewis JT, Lamb DH, Rallis DJ, Harrington JR. Angiogenesis and CD34 expression as a predictor of recurrence in oral squamous cell carcinoma. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2009;67:1800-5.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.
Gupta MK, Qin RY. Mechanism and its regulation of tumor-induced angiogenesis. World J Gastroenterol 2003;9:1144-55.  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.
Gadbail AR, Mankar Gadbail MP, Hande A, Chaudhary MS, Gondivkar SM, Korde S, et al. Tumor angiogenesis: Role in locally aggressive biological behavior of ameloblastoma and keratocystic odontogenic tumor. Head Neck 2013;35:329-34.  Back to cited text no. 33
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2]



 

Top
 
 
Search
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Materials and Me...
Results
Discussion
Conclusion
References
Article Figures
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed44    
    Printed3    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded18    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal