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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 421-427

Comparative evaluation of the cortisol level of unstimulated saliva in patients with and without chronic periodontitis

1 Department of Periodontology, Dental Implant Research Center, Dental Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran, India
2 Dentist, Isfahan, Iran

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Elahe Karami
School of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Hezar-Jerib Street, Isfahan
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1735-3327.270786

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Background: Chronic periodontitis (CP) is one of the most prevalent diseases of the oral cavity with various biological and behavioral risk factors. We aimed to evaluate the association between the salivary cortisol level (SCL) of unstimulated saliva and CP in patients referred to Isfahan Dental Faculty. Materials and Methods: In this analytic cross-sectional study, 90 patients were selected based on the presence of periodontitis and were divided into two groups: with periodontitis and without periodontitis (n = 45). First, by evaluating the level of anxiety with Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory questionnaire, each group was divided into three subgroups, each containing 15 persons. To measure the SCL in all subgroups by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method, saliva samples were collected with unstimulated spitting method between 9 and 11 AM. Periodontal evaluation was done using the mean probing depth (PD), plaque index, and bleeding on probing. The obtained data were analyzed using SPSS software (version 20, IBM Corp., Armonk, N.Y., USA) and analysis of variance, independent t-test, Chi-square, Mann–Whitney, Spearman correlation, and Pearson correlation coefficient tests (α = 0.05). Results: The mean level of salivary cortisol (P = 0.048) and PD (P = 0.009) in patients with periodontitis was significantly higher than those without periodontitis. There was a direct and meaningful correlation between PD and SCL (P < 0.001, r = 0.363). In both groups of participants with (P < 0.001) and without periodontitis (P < 0.001), the mean SCL in patients with high anxiety was significantly more than patients with medium and low anxiety. Conclusion: Our results showed that there is an increased level of salivary cortisol (as anxiety index) in patients with CP. Therefore, it seems that the probability of the occurrence of periodontitis is higher in those with increased cortisol level.

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