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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2016| September-October  | Volume 13 | Issue 5  
    Online since October 14, 2016

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Prevalence of malocclusion among Iranian children: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Maryam Akbari, Kamran Bagheri Lankarani, Behnam Honarvar, Reza Tabrizi, Hossein Mirhadi, Mahmood Moosazadeh
September-October 2016, 13(5):387-395
DOI:10.4103/1735-3327.192269  PMID:27857763
Background: The high prevalence of malocclusion is a public health problem in the world and the third priority in oral care. Numerous primary studies have presented reports on the prevalence of malocclusion among Iranian children. In combination, the results of these studies using meta-analysis are highly valuable for health policy-making. Similarly, this study aimed at determining the prevalence of different types of malocclusion among Iranian children. Materials and Methods: Using relevant keywords, national and international databases were explored. After narrowing down the search strategy and leaving out the duplicates, the remaining articles were screened based on titles and abstracts. To increase search sensitivity, reference lists of the papers were examined. To identify unpublished articles and documentations, a set of negotiations were done with the people involved and research centers. Finally, the heterogeneity index between the studies was determined using Cochran (Q) and I2 tests. According to the results of heterogeneity, the random effects model was used to estimate the prevalence of malocclusion in Iran. Results: In total, 25 articles were included in the meta-analysis process. The prevalence of dental malocclusion was estimated in 28,693 Iranian children aged 3-18 years. The total prevalence of Class I, II, and III malocclusion was 54.6% (46.5-62.7), 24.7% (20.8-28.7), and 6.01% (4-7.1), respectively. The prevalence of Class I, II, and III malocclusion was 44.6% (32.9-56.2), 21.5% (18.01-25.1), and 4.5% (3.2-5.9) in boys and 48.8% (36.8-60.8), 21.5% (16.9-25.1), and 5.5% (3.9-7.1) in girls, respectively. Conclusion: This study showed a high prevalence of malocclusion among Iranian children. Also, the results indicated that the prevalence is higher in girls.
  11 2,434 274
Scaffolds in regenerative endodontics: A review
Kinjal M Gathani, Srinidhi Surya Raghavendra
September-October 2016, 13(5):379-386
DOI:10.4103/1735-3327.192266  PMID:27857762
Root canal therapy has enabled us to save numerous teeth over the years. The most desired outcome of endodontic treatment would be when diseased or nonvital pulp is replaced with healthy pulp tissue that would revitalize the teeth through regenerative endodontics. 'A search was conducted using the Pubmed and MEDLINE databases for articles with the criteria 'Platelet rich plasma', 'Platelet rich fibrin', 'Stem cells', 'Natural and artificial scaffolds' from 1982-2015'. Tissues are organized as three-dimensional structures, and appropriate scaffolding is necessary to provide a spatially correct position of cell location and regulate differentiation, proliferation, or metabolism of the stem cells. Extracellular matrix molecules control the differentiation of stem cells, and an appropriate scaffold might selectively bind and localize cells, contain growth factors, and undergo biodegradation over time. Different scaffolds facilitate the regeneration of different tissues. To ensure a successful regenerative procedure, it is essential to have a thorough and precise knowledge about the suitable scaffold for the required tissue. This article gives a review on the different scaffolds providing an insight into the new developmental approaches on the horizon.
  10 3,010 630
Exploring the missing link - Empathy among dental students: An institutional cross-sectional survey
Vikram Pal Aggarwal, Robin Garg, Nikita Goyal, Puneet Kaur, Sakshi Singhal, Nancy Singla, Deeksha Gijwani, Aditi Sharma
September-October 2016, 13(5):419-423
DOI:10.4103/1735-3327.192279  PMID:27857767
Background: Empathy plays an important role in healthy dentist and patient relationship. Hence, the aim of the study is to (a) to measure the self-reported empathy levels among dental undergraduate and postgraduate students. (b) To review the trend of changes in empathy level with experience, age, and gender among dental undergraduate and postgraduate students. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was carried out in two private dental institutions situated in Sri Ganganagar, India, with a sample size of 978. Data were obtained from the 1 st to final year (BDS), interns, and postgraduate students from January to March 2015. An empathy level of students was assessed by the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy - Health Profession Students Version Questionnaire. An exploratory factor analysis using Kaiser's criteria was undertaken to appraise the construct validity and dimensionality. Based on the results of the factor analysis, three factors were selected; labeled as "perspective taking," "compassionate care," and "standing in patient's shoes." Results: The majority of the students was female in a equivalent  ratio of 1338:618. There were significant differences in empathy scores by gender and age (P < 0.01). The lowest and highest mean empathy scores were found in postgraduate (mean = 108.77, standard deviation [SD] =9.12) and 1 st year (mean = 117.23, SD = 14.19) dental students, respectively. Conclusion: Dental educators should consider the likely decline in empathy among students as early as possible and adopt communication teaching strategies to promote the development of empathy and reduce the risk of further decline.
  7 1,746 170
Comparative assessment of antimicrobial efficacy of different hand sanitizers: An in vitro study
Vardhaman Mulchand Jain, Gundabaktha Nagappa Karibasappa, Arun Suresh Dodamani, Vishwakarma K Prashanth, Gaurao Vasant Mali
September-October 2016, 13(5):424-431
DOI:10.4103/1735-3327.192283  PMID:27857768
Background: To evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of four different hand sanitizers against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus faecalis as well as to assess and compare the antimicrobial effectiveness among four different hand sanitizers. Materials and Methods: The present study is an in vitro study to evaluate antimicrobial efficacy of Dettol, Lifebuoy, PureHands, and Sterillium hand sanitizers against clinical isolates of the aforementioned test organisms. The well variant of agar disk diffusion test using Mueller-Hinton agar was used for evaluating the antimicrobial efficacy of hand sanitizers. McFarland 0.5 turbidity standard was taken as reference to adjust the turbidity of bacterial suspensions. Fifty microliters of the hand sanitizer was introduced into each of the 4 wells while the 5 th well incorporated with sterile water served as a control. This was done for all the test organisms and plates were incubated in an incubator for 24 h at 37΀C. After incubation, antimicrobial effectiveness was determined using digital caliper (mm) by measuring the zone of inhibition. Results: The mean diameters of zones of inhibition (in mm) observed in Group A (Sterillium), Group B (PureHands), Group C (Lifebuoy), and Group D (Dettol) were 22 ± 6, 7.5 ± 0.5, 9.5 ± 1.5, and 8 ± 1, respectively. Maximum inhibition was found with Group A against all the tested organisms. Data were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance, followed by post hoc test for group-wise comparisons. The difference in the values of different sanitizers was statistically significant at P < 0.001. Conclusion: Sterillium was the most effective hand sanitizer to maintain the hand hygiene.
  5 3,355 402
Stafne bone cavity with ectopic salivary gland tissue in the anterior of mandible
Parviz Deyhimi, Soheila Darisavi, Saeideh Khalesi
September-October 2016, 13(5):454-457
DOI:10.4103/1735-3327.192306  PMID:27857772
Stafne bone cavities (SBCs) are uncommon well-demarcated defects of the mandible, which often occur in the posterior portion of the jaw bone and are usually asymptomatic. Furthermore, SBC is found in men aged 50-70-year-old. Anterior mandibular variants of SBC are very rare. This article describes a case of anterior SBC in a 45-year-old man that resembled endodontic periapical lesions. Upon histopathological examination, it turned out to be a normal salivary gland tissue.
  4 1,567 135
Dimensional and volumetric analysis of the oropharyngeal region in obstructive sleep apnea patients: A cone beam computed tomography study
Tripti Tikku, Rohit Khanna, Kiran Sachan, Akhil Agarwal, Kamna Srivastava, Anubha Lal
September-October 2016, 13(5):396-404
DOI:10.4103/1735-3327.192273  PMID:27857764
Background: Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a potentially life-threatening condition in which there is a periodic cessation of breathing (for 10 sec or longer) that occurs during sleep in the presence of inspiratory effort. The aim of the study was to assess volumetric and dimensional differences between OSA patients and normal individuals in the upright posture. Material and Method: The present study was conducted on CBCT scans of 32 patients who were divided into two groups -Group I (control group) and Group II (OSA subjects). Group I consisted of 16 patients with normal airway with ESS score from 2 to 10, STOP BANG Questionnaire score of <3 and who had undergone CBCT for various diagnostic reasons. Group II had patients with ESS score >10, STOP BANG Questionnaire score of > 3, AHI index >5. Linear and angular parameters, volume and minimum cross-section area (MCA) of oropharyngeal airway, anteroposterior length and lateral width at MCA was compared amongst the groups. Results: The oropharyngeal volume, MCA, and the anteroposterior and lateral width of the airway at MCA of the OSA subjects was significantly lesser than that of normal subjects. The length of both soft palate and tongue was significantly more in Group II. The angle between the nasopharyngeal airway and the oropharyngeal airway was significantly more obtuse in Group II. Conclusion: The reduction in oropharyngeal volume in OSA patients could be attributed to different anatomical and pathophysiological factors that were corroborated with the findings of the present study.
  4 1,961 252
A case report and short review on changing trends in the site of occurrence of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor: Unravelling the past 15 years
Sneha Sethi, Manish Kumar, Pratul Aggarwal, HS Indra Kumar, Chetan D Sugandhi, Silvie Singh
September-October 2016, 13(5):462-471
DOI:10.4103/1735-3327.192312  PMID:27857774
Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is an uncommon benign odontogenic lesion, with debatable histogenesis and variable histopathology. A systematic and diverse insight into the evolution, clinical presentation, histology, and immunohistochemical findings of this lesion is reviewed and presented. We reviewed the data published from 2000 to 2014 of approximately 255 cases that revealed a significant change in the incidence of predominant site involved, in contrast to the findings published by Reichart. We have also included the chronological order of events leading to the coining of the term AOT, which shows the curiosity that has been dedicated to understanding the lesion. Immunohistochemistry is considered to be a hallmark in pathology for learning the molecular pathogenesis and giving a correct final diagnosis. Several markers have been used to investigate and understand this lesion, and a compilation of the findings has been tabulated.
  3 1,713 153
A histologic, histomorphometric, and radiographic comparison between two complexes of CenoBoen/CenoMembrane and Bio-Oss/Bio-Gide in lateral ridge augmentation: A clinical trial
Babak Amoian, Ehsan Moudi, Maryam Seyed Majidi, SM Ali Tabatabaei
September-October 2016, 13(5):446-453
DOI:10.4103/1735-3327.192304  PMID:27857771
Background: Several grafting materials have been used for alveolar ridge augmentation. The literature lacks researches to compare CenoBone to other grafting materials. The aim of this study was to compare CenoBone/CenoMembrane complex to Bio-Oss/Bio-Gide complex in lateral alveolar bone augmentation in terms of radiographic, histologic, and histomorphometric parameters. Materials and Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, ten patients who needed lateral ridge augmentation were selected and augmentations were done using either of CenoBone/CenoMembrane or Bio-Oss/Bio-Gide complexes. In the re-entry surgery in 6 months following augmentation, core biopsies were taken and clinical, radiographic, histologic, and histomorphometric evaluations were performed. Results: No statistically significant difference was seen between groups except for the number of blood vessels and percentage of residual graft materials. Conclusion: CenoBone seems to present a comparable lateral ridge augmentation to Bio-Oss in.
  3 1,622 166
Effect of Cyclosporin A and Angiotensin II on cytosolic calcium levels in primary human gingival fibroblasts
Ajitkumar Supraja, Murugan Girija Dinesh, Subbarayan Rajasekaran, Thodur Madapusi Balaji, Suresh Ranga Rao
September-October 2016, 13(5):405-412
DOI:10.4103/1735-3327.192276  PMID:27857765
Background: To evaluate the effect of Cyclosporin A (CsA) and angiotensin II (Ang II) on cytosolic calcium levels in cultured human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). Materials and Methods: Healthy gingival samples from six volunteers were obtained, and primary HGFs were cultured. Cell viability and proliferation assay were performed to identify the ideal concentrations of CsA and Ang II. Cytosolic calcium levels in cultured gingival fibroblasts treated with CsA and Ang II were studied using colorimetric assay, confocal and fluorescence imaging. Statistical analyses were done using SPSS software and GraphPad Prism. Results: Higher levels of cytosolic levels were evident in cells treated with CsA and Ang II when compared to control group and was statistically significant (P < 0.05) in both colorimetric assay and confocal imaging. Fluorescent images of the cultured HGFs revealed the same. Conclusion: Thus calcium being a key player in major cellular functions, plays a major role in the pathogenesis of drug-induced gingival overgrowth.
  2 1,703 159
Socket preservation using freeze-dried bone allograft with and without plasma rich in growth factors in dogs
Mohammad Hasan Samandari, Abbas Haghighat, Nakisa Torabinia, Mehdi Taghian, Leyli Sadri, Vahid Naemy
September-October 2016, 13(5):432-439
DOI:10.4103/1735-3327.192290  PMID:27857769
Background: Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) and freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA) are shown to promote bone healing. This study was aimed to histologically and histomorphometrically investigate the effect of combined use of PRGF and FDBA on bone formation, and compare it to FDBA alone and control group. Materials and Methods: The distal roots of the lower premolars were extracted bilaterally in four female dogs. Sockets were randomly divided into FDBA + PRGF, FDBA, and control groups. Two dogs were sacrificed after 2 weeks and two dogs were sacrificed after 4 weeks. Sockets were assessed histologically and histomorphometrically. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Mann-Whitney U-tests utilizing the SPSS software version 20. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: While the difference in density of fibrous tissue in three groups was not statistically significant (P = 0.343), the bone density in grafted groups was significantly higher than the control group (P = 0.021). The least decrease in all socket dimensions was observed in the FDBA group. However, these differences were only significant in coronal portion at week 4. Regarding socket dimensions and bone density, the difference between FDBA and FDBA+PRGF groups was not significant in middle and apical portions. Conclusion: The superiority of PRGF+FDBA overFDBA in socket preservation cannot be concluded from this experiment.
  2 1,716 164
A case-report of delayed repositioning of intruded permanent maxillary central incisors accompanied by complicated crown fractures: A 2-year follow-up
Azade Rafiee, Hamid Moradian, Maryam Ayatollahi
September-October 2016, 13(5):458-461
DOI:10.4103/1735-3327.192310  PMID:27857773
Intrusive luxation is the most severe type of dental injury with a complex healing sequence. Pulp necrosis, root resorption (surface, inflammatory and replacement resorption), and defects in marginal periodontal bone healing are the main complications. Treatment strategies can be either active, by repositioning (surgical or orthodontic extrusion), or passive, by spontaneous re-eruption based on the thorough evaluation of the case. This paper reports a case of delayed repositioning of severely intruded permanent maxillary central incisors accompanied by complicated crown fractures after 3 months. After thorough clinical and radiographic evaluations, and based on guidelines, the teeth were surgically repositioned and splinted for 6 weeks. One week after the initial intervention, the endodontic treatment for both permanent maxillary incisors were initiated using calcium hydroxide. 6 months later, the teeth were ready for MTA plug and gutta-percha root canal filling. During the follow-up period, the teeth had remained functional and esthetically acceptable. Further yearly observations are planned at least for 5 years.
  - 1,830 182
Assessment of dimensional accuracy of preadjusted metal injection molding orthodontic brackets
Shiva Alavi, Farnaz Tajmirriahi
September-October 2016, 13(5):440-445
DOI:10.4103/1735-3327.192299  PMID:27857770
Background: the aim of this study is to evaluate the dimensional accuracy of McLaughlin, Bennett, and Trevisi (MBT) brackets manufactured by two different companies (American Orthodontics and Ortho Organizers) and determine variations in incorporation of values in relation to tip and torque in these products. Materials and Methods: In the present analytical/descriptive study, 64 maxillary right central brackets manufactured by two companies (American Orthodontics and Ortho Organizers) were selected randomly and evaluated for the accuracy of the values in relation to torque and angulation presented by the manufacturers. They were placed in a video measuring machine using special revolvers under them and were positioned in a manner so that the light beams would be directed on the floor of the slot without the slot walls being seen. Then, the software program of the same machine was used to determine the values of each bracket type. The means of measurements were determined for each sample and were analyzed with independent t-test and one-sample t-test. Results: Based on the confidence interval, it can be concluded that at 95% probability, the means of tip angles of maxillary right central brackets of these two brands were 4.1-4.3° and the torque angles were 16.39-16.72°. The tips in these samples were at a range of 3.33-4.98°, and the torque was at a range of 15.22-18.48°. Conclusion: In the present study, there were no significant differences in the angulation incorporated into the brackets from the two companies; however, they were significantly different from the tiP values for the MBT prescription. In relation to torque, there was a significant difference between the American Orthodontic brackets exhibited significant differences with the reported 17°, too.
  - 1,780 187
Serum level of Interleukin-8 in subjects with diabetes, diabetes plus oral lichen planus, and oral lichen planus: A biochemical study
Atefeh Tavangar, Faezeh Khozeimeh, Fereshtehossadat Ghoreishian, Mahsa Abbasi Boroujeni
September-October 2016, 13(5):413-418
DOI:10.4103/1735-3327.192277  PMID:27857766
Background: Correlation between diabetes mellitus (DM) and oral lichen planus (OLP) seems probable. Since Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is an important inflammatory mediator involved in both conditions, this study aimed to measure and compare the serum level of IL-8 in DM, OLP, and DM + OLP patients in comparison with healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted on 75 patients (30 OLP, 5 OLP and type II DM, 20 type II DM, and 20 healthy controls). Serum levels of IL-8, fasting blood sugar (FBS) and 2-h postprandial blood sugar were measured in the four groups. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 by one-way ANOVA and post_hocleast significant difference test. Results: Type II DM patients with OLP had the highest mean serum level of IL-8 followed by OLP, DM and control groups, respectively. Pairwise comparison of groups revealed significant differences in serum IL-8 between the control and OLP and also control and OLP+DM (P < 0.05) groups. No other significant differences were noted. The mean levels of FBS and 2-h postprandial blood sugar were the highest in OLP+DM patients followed by DM, OLP and control groups, respectively. Conclusion: The ascending trend of serum level of IL-8 in the control, DM, OLP, and DM+OLP patients may indicate the role of this factor in the pathogenesis of DM and OLP. Moreover, it may play a synergistic role in patients suffering from both conditions.
  - 1,475 153