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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 18  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 40

Anatomy assessment of permanent mandibular premolar teeth in a selected Iranian population using cone-beam computed tomography


1 Department of Endodontics, Dental Research Center, School of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
2 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dental Implant Research Center, Dental Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

Date of Submission20-Oct-2019
Date of Acceptance03-May-2020
Date of Web Publication24-May-2021

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Shervin Bagherieh
Department of Endodontics, Dental Material Research Center, School of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 81746-73461
Iran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1735-3327.316657

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  Abstract 


Background: Appropriate cleaning and shaping and three-dimensional obturation of the root canal system lead to a successful endodontic treatment. To achieve this, complete knowledge of the internal anatomy of root canals is necessary. Therefore, this study evaluated the number and shape of mandibular premolar roots and canals and classified their Vertucci classification using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of an Iranian sample population.
Materials and Methods: This in vivo study was performed on CBCT images of patients aged 20–70 years who had attended a dental radiology center in Isfahan. CBCT images were examined in coronal, sagittal, and especially axial dimensions. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Groups were compared using the Chi-square of the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. The level of significance was predetermined as 0.05.
Results: In both first and second premolars, the most common classes were Type I followed by Type V. The Chi-square did not show significant differences between males and females in terms of Vertucci classes in the first (P = 0.305) or second premolar (P = 0.315).
Conclusion: Since a thorough knowledge of root canal anatomy is necessary for successful root canal treatment and almost one out of ten mandibular premolars has additional canal in their root canal system, accurate evaluating of preoperative radiographs, taking CBCT images if necessary, and probing the root canal system with fine and precurved files should be done to negotiate the entire canal system.

Keywords: Bicuspid, cone-beam computed tomography, root canal therapy


How to cite this article:
Hasheminia SM, Mehdizadeh M, Bagherieh S. Anatomy assessment of permanent mandibular premolar teeth in a selected Iranian population using cone-beam computed tomography. Dent Res J 2021;18:40

How to cite this URL:
Hasheminia SM, Mehdizadeh M, Bagherieh S. Anatomy assessment of permanent mandibular premolar teeth in a selected Iranian population using cone-beam computed tomography. Dent Res J [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Jun 17];18:40. Available from: https://www.drjjournal.net/text.asp?2021/18/1/40/316657




  Introduction Top


Appropriate cleaning and shaping and three-dimensional (3D) obturation of the root canal system lead to a successful endodontic treatment. To achieve this, complete knowledge of the internal anatomy of root canals is necessary.[1],[2],[3] Anatomical variations cause difficulties in the process of proper debridement of root canals. Mandibular incisors, premolars, and second molar are reported among teeth with the highest incidence of root canal variation. For instance, the incidence of the second canal in mandibular incisors was reported 27.5% by Vertucci,[4] 15% by Miyashita,[5] and 26.2% by Al-Qudah and Awawdeh.[6] The incidence of canal variation in mandibular premolars was reported 16.5% by Liao et al.,[7] 12.9% by Yu et al.,[8] and <8% by Ok et al.[9] Mandibular first molar is typically reported as a two-rooted tooth in ≥85% of cases,[10] whereas mandibular second molar shows a wider range of anatomic variation. The incidence of C-type mandibular second molar was reported 43.3% by Chen et al.,[11] and it is reported as the most common teeth with C-type canal configuration.[12]

Ethnic background can affect root canal anatomy; therefore, documenting the incidence of root canal variation seems necessary. There are plenty of studies conducted on the Iranian population to report anatomical classification of root canals,[2],[3],[13],[14] but their results are somehow controversial and their report is not comprehensive. Many of these studies used conventional radiograph that is less accurate than 3D imaging[15] or clearing and staining technique that requires tooth extraction and is not applicable in the clinic.

Therefore, this study evaluated the number and shape of mandibular premolar roots and canals and classified their Vertucci classification using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of an Iranian sample population.


  Materials and Methods Top


This in vivo study was performed on CBCT images of patients aged 20–70 years who had attended a dental radiology center in Isfahan. All CBCTs had been retrospectively taken solely for clinical purposes. No X-ray was emitted to patients for this study. All CBCTs had been taken with the same unit (Soredex, Tuusula, Finland), with a similar field of view (8 cm × 5 cm), focal size (0.3 mm), current (10 mA), peak kilovoltage (90 kVp), and time (0.4 s). Inclusion criteria were availability of at least three premolar teeth for each patient, and full patient information was obtained. Exclusion criteria were teeth with previous root canal treatment, resorption, open apex, agenesis, and dental fractures. A total of 213 patients with full arch mandibular CBCT scans were included.

All measurements were done by two observers (an oral radiologist and an endodontic resident), using an OnDemand3D software program (Cybermed Inc., Korea Rep.). CBCT images were examined in coronal, sagittal, and especially axial dimensions [Figure 1]. The radiographic measurements were repeated 1 week later for the evaluation of inter- and intraobserver reliability.
Figure 1: CBCT images in axial view (a) mandibular first premolar with one canal, (b) mandibular premolar with one large canal, (c) mandibular premolar with two root canals and cortical bone destruction due to periapical lesion, (d) mandibular premolars with three root canals, (e) coronal view of a mandibular second premolar with periapical lesion, (f) sagittal view of a mandibular second premolar with periapical lesion.

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Evaluated parameters were the number of roots, number of canals in each root and in each tooth, and shapes of canals according to the Vertucci classification and its modifications [Figure 2].[16] Vertucci[5] classified root canal configurations of human permanent teeth into eight types: Type I – a single canal extends from the pulp chamber to the apex. Type II – two separate canals leave the pulp chamber and join short of the apex to form one canal. Type III – one canal leaves the pulp chamber, divides into two within the root, and then merges to exit as one canal. Type IV – two separate and distinct canals extend from the pulp chamber to the apex. Type V – one canal leaves the pulp chamber and divides short of the apex into two separate and distinct canals with separate apical foramina. Type VI – two separate canals leave the pulp chamber, merge into the body of the root, and redivide short of the apex to exit as two distinct canals. Type VII – one canal leaves the pulp chamber, divides and then rejoins within the body of the root, and finally, redivides into two distinct canals short of the apex. Type VIII – three separate and distinct canals extend from the pulp chamber to the apex.[17]
Figure 2: Vertucci classification.[16]

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The radiographic measurements were made in the axial and coronal sections by two observers. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Groups were compared using the Chi-square of the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, version 24.0, SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). The level of significance was predetermined as 0.05.


  Results Top


The statistical analysis showed high inter- and intraobserver reliability (κ = 0.987) (P ≤ 0.05) [Table 1].
Table 1: Interobserver reliability test result

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There were two cases of disagreement between observers; in these two particular cases, readings from the maxillofacial radiologist were selected as the correct result.

Of 213 enrolled patients, 106 were male and 107 were female. Patients' average age was 32.6 ± 13.23 years. Of these patients, 153 (71.84%) were aged between 20 and 49 years, whereas 60 (28.16%) were aged between 50 and 70 years.

Among 773 assessed teeth, 389 (50.32%) were first premolar and 384 (49.68%) were second premolar.

Number of roots and canals

[Table 2] summarizes the number of roots and canals in each tooth. 88.69%, 10.54%, and 0.77% of first premolars had one, two, and three roots, respectively. 88.8%, 9.11%, and 2.09% of second premolars had one, two, and three roots, respectively [Table 2]. There were no significant differences between males and females in terms of the number of roots in first (P = 0.175) and second premolars (P = 0.195).
Table 2: Distribution (%) of number in roots of mandibular first and second premolars

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Vertucci classification

[Table 3] presents Vertucci classes and Vertucci modifications. In both first and second premolars, the most common classes were Type I followed by Type V. The Chi-square did not show significant differences between males and females in terms of Vertucci classes in the first (P = 0.305) or second premolar (P = 0.315).
Table 3: Distribution of canal types according to Vertucci Classes (I-VIII) and its modification (IX) in mandibular first and second premolars

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  Discussion Top


The findings of the current study showed that 88.69% of mandibular first premolars had one root and 81.49% of them had one root canal. Our findings were almost similar to other studies conducted in Iran. Khedmat et al.[18] reported that 88.5% of mandibular first premolars had a single root canal. Sobhani et al.[19] reported that 87.3% of these teeth had one root canal, whereas Rahimi et al.[20] stated that 70.6% of mandibular first premolars had one canal. In studies conducted in India and India[21],[22] and Spain,[23] the prevalence of single canal mandibular first premolar was reported 88.4%, 80.8%, and 83.3%, respectively. [Table 4] summarizes some studies analyzing mandibular first premolar roots, and [Table 5] summarizes studies analyzing mandibular first premolar root canals. The most common canal configuration in the first premolars in our study was Vertucci Type I which was similar to other studies conducted in Iran and the rest of the world.[18],[19],[20],[21],[22],[23],[26],[25],[29],[30],[32],[33],[34]
Table 4: Percentage for number of roots in mandibular premolars

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Table 5: Percentage for number of canals in mandibular premolars

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Data on mandibular second premolar are less than the first premolar. Our study showed that 88.80% of mandibular second premolars had one root canal and 83.6% of them had a single root canal.

Our findings were not consistent with Rahimi et al. findings[20] since they reported all of their second premolar samples had a single root and 80.5% of them had a single canal. Iyer et al.[28] in a study conducted in Syria reported that 97% of second premolars had one root and the rest of them had two roots. Singh and Pawar[23] reported that 92% of second premolars had one root and 8% showed two roots. [Table 4] summarizes some studies analyzing mandibular second premolar roots, and [Table 5] summarizes studies analyzing mandibular second premolar root canals. The most common canal configuration in the second premolars in our study was Vertucci Type I, which was similar to other studies conducted in Iran and the rest of the world.[20],[24],[25],[26]

The findings of the current study on the number of two- and three-rooted second premolars were inconsistent with other studies, which may be a result of different sample sizes and racial differences.


  Conclusion Top


Since a thorough knowledge of root canal anatomy is necessary for successful root canal treatment and almost one out of ten mandibular premolars has additional canal in their root canal system, accurate evaluating of preoperative radiographs, taking CBCT images if periapical radiograph demonstrates atypical anatomy, and probing the root canal system with fine and precurved files should be done to negotiate the entire canal system.[35]

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

The authors of this manuscript declare that they have no conflicts of interest, real or perceived, financial or nonfinancial in this article.



 
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    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5]



 

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