Home About us Editorial board Ahead of print Current issue Search Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Reader Login
  • Users Online: 317
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
Export selected to
Reference Manager
Medlars Format
RefWorks Format
BibTex Format
  Access statistics : Table of Contents
   2018| July-August  | Volume 15 | Issue 4  
    Online since July 20, 2018

  Archives   Previous Issue   Next Issue   Most popular articles   Most cited articles
Hide all abstracts  Show selected abstracts  Export selected to
  Viewed PDF Cited
The comparison of antimicrobial effects of herbal and chemical agents on toothpaste: An experimental study
Fahime Kooshki, Fahimeh S Tabatabaei, Sahar Tajik, Azadeh Aayan
2018, 15:289 (19 July 2018)
DOI:10.4103/1735-3327.237247  PMID:30123307
Background: Nowadays, health-care companies use different antimicrobial agents in toothpastes to reduce oral microorganisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effects of one Iranian herbal toothpaste in different concentrations compared with the chemical type on oral microorganisms in vitro. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, the antimicrobial effect of one Iranian herbal toothpaste in comparison with its chemical type at three concentrations of 1, 1:1, and 1:3 on Streptococcus mutans (SM), Lactobacillus (LB), and Candida albicans (CA), respectively, were studied by agar disc diffusion method. The microorganisms were cultured on 21 plates. Then, four sterile paper discs were placed on each plate and the extracts were placed on them in prepared concentrations and incubated at 37°C ± 0°C for 24 h. The diameter of the inhibition zone around the discs was then measured in millimeters and recorded two-way ANOVA, one-way ANOVA tests, and regarding the difference variances, Tamhane supplementary tests were used at the significance level of P < 0.05. Results: According to the results of this study, the full concentration of Iranian herbal toothpaste on SM, LB, and CA microorganisms had higher antimicrobial effect than the other two concentrations. This difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Furthermore, all the three toothpastes at full concentration had the same antimicrobial activity (P < 0.05). The antimicrobial effect of herbal toothpaste decreased significantly compared with the chemical toothpaste while the concentration decreased (P < 0.05). Conclusion: At full concentration, herbal and chemical toothpastes have the same antimicrobial effect, but by reducing the concentration, the antimicrobial effect of herbal toothpaste is reduced compared with the chemical one.
  3,517 267 -
Is nonsurgical management effective in temporomandibular joint disorders? – A systematic review and meta-analysis
J Nandhini, S Ramasamy, K Ramya, Ronak Nazir Kaul, A John William Felix, Ravi David Austin
1900, 15:231 (1 January 1900)
Background: Various nonsurgical interventions have been used for the management of patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders, but their clinical effectiveness remains unclear. Hence, the purpose of this systematic review and meta-analyses was to assess the evidence of the effectiveness of nonsurgical interventions in the management of TMJ disorders. Materials and Methods: A literature search on five databases such as PubMed, PubMed Central Cochrane, TRIP, NGCH databases and hand searching was conducted for a period from October 1995 to 2015. Randomized control trials (RCTs) on the nonsurgical management of TMJ disorders were included and reported in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The quality of the articles was assessed by JADAD scoring. Finally, out of 23 RCTs, 11 articles having any of the primary outcomes (pain pressure threshold [PPT], pain, maximal pain-free mouth opening, and level of dysfunction) were selected. The extracted data were analyzed using NCSS software. Results: The results showed the evidence of pain reduction (P = 0.00), maximal pain-free mouth opening (P = 0.0138), and decrease in level of dysfunction (P = 0.0007) but no improvement in PPT to a significant level (P = 0.6600). Conclusion: Our results suggest that the simplest, cost-effective nonsurgical treatments have a positive therapeutic effect on the initial management of TMJ disorders. However, a consistent methodology recording both the objective and subjective outcomes would be a better choice for added reliability.
  1,780 309 -
Shear bond strength and scanning electron microscopy characteristics of universal adhesive in primary tooth dentin: An in vitro study
Mahtab Memarpour, Fereshteh Shafiei, Faranak Razmjouei, Mina Soltani
2018, 15:264 (19 July 2018)
DOI:10.4103/1735-3327.237241  PMID:30123303
Background: The aim of the study was to evaluate the adhesion of Scotchbond Universal Adhesive to primary tooth dentin by measuring shear bond strength (SBS) and observing morphological changes with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, a total of 60 primary canine teeth were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 12). The study groups were (1) Phosphoric acid etching + Adper Single Bond 2 (control), (2) phosphoric acid etching + Scotchbond Universal (etch-and-rinse), (3) Scotchbond Universal (self-etch), (4) phosphoric acid etching + Scotchbond Universal + resin, and (5) Scotchbond Universal + resin. Composite cylinders were built on the tooth surface, and 10 samples in each group were selected for SBS testing and identification of the failure modes. Two samples from each group were observed by SEM. One-way ANOVA and Tukey honestly significant difference post hoc test were used for data analysis P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The results showed that SBS in Group 1 was significantly lower than in Groups 2, 3, and 4 (all P < 0.001). There was no significant difference between Groups 2 and 3 (P = 0.98), or between Groups 3 and 4 (P = 0.97). There was no significant difference between Groups 2 and 4 (P = 0.999) or between Groups 1 and 5 (P = 0.156). Mixed and cohesive failures were more frequent in Groups 2, 3 and 4. SEM observations showed that applying phosphoric acid to the dentin before Scotchbond Universal adhesive resulted in more open dentinal tubules and more resin tag impregnation. Conclusion: There was no significant difference in SBS between Scotchbond Universal Adhesive in etch-and-rinse and self-etching modes. The SBS of Scotchbond Universal Adhesive in etch-and-rinse mode was greater than Adper Single Bond 2.
  1,523 207 -
The effect of denture adhesive on the efficiency of complete denture in patients with different alveolar ridges
Shirin Shamsolketabi, Monireh Nili
2018, 15:271 (19 July 2018)
DOI:10.4103/1735-3327.237243  PMID:30123304
Background: Denture adhesives are used to improve retention, stability, and efficiency of complete dentures. Proper use of denture adhesives has benefits for patients. Evaluating the effect of denture adhesives on efficiency of complete dentures in patients with different alveolar ridges was the purpose of this study. Materials and Methods: This cross-over randomized clinical trials study was conducted on 90 patients who were wearing well fitted complete dentures. The patients were categorized into three groups based on clinical and radiographic situations of residual ridges. Group I with mild resorption, group II with moderate resorption, and group III with severe resorption. The patients who had recently received their dentures and the primary complications had been resolved were asked to use denture adhesive according to the instructions. The patients answered two different questioners in 1 week and 2 months of using denture adhesive. The answers were analyzed by means of variance and Chi-squared tests (P < 0.05). Results: Retention, chewing, talking, self-confidence, and efficiency of dentures were improved in all patients. No statistical significant differences in these parameters were observed between the three groups (P > 0.05). Increased retention and adaptation made 64.4% of these patients willing to continue using the adhesive after the study. Forty-three percent of patients reported moderate satisfaction of using this adhesive. Conclusion: Using denture adhesive in well-fitted complete dentures resulted in an improvement in retention, talking, chewing, ease of use, self-confidence, and efficiency of dentures. The use of denture adhesive is, therefore, recommended to patients wearing dentures with some problems.
  1,519 208 -
Surface analysis of gutta percha after disinfecting with sodium hypochlorite and silver nanoparticles by atomic force microscopy: An in vitro study
Priyesh Mishra, Sanjeev Tyagi
2018, 15:242 (19 July 2018)
Background: Sodium hypochlorite (5.25% NaOCl) and silver nanoparticles (70 ug/ml AgNPs) have a broad spectrum of antimicrobial efficacy for disinfecting gutta percha (GP) point, so this study was conducted to analyze the assay surface topography of GP when disinfected with AgNPs and 5.25% of NaOCl using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study a total of thirty cones were taken. The samples were divided into three treatment groups: Group I and II with 70 μg/ml AgNPs and 5.25% NaOCl. The time duration was 1 min. Untreated GP points served as control group. After treatment of 1 min for each solution, the samples were positioned in the AFM. For comparison, the root mean square (RMS) was used to investigate the structure of the GP points. Unpaired t-test and ANOVA test were used. The differences among the groups were tested by Tukey's honestly significant difference test and were considered significant when P < 0.05. Results: 5.25% NaOCl created RMS value of 202.48 nm at 1 min as compared to 70 μg/ml of AgNPs and control which produced RMS value of 44.48 nm and 24.1 nm, respectively (<0.0001). Conclusion: The study showed irregularity in the surface of GP with NaOCl and lesser deterioration with AgNPs which could affect the postoperative prognosis. In this study, it was found that NaOCl causes 10 times more surface topography deterioration of GP when compared to AgNPs at 700 times lesser concentration.
  1,457 202 -
Influence of oral health on the quality of life of institutionalized and noninstitutionalized elderly people
Tânia Adas Saliba, Mariana Martins Ortega, Karimy Kassem Goya, Suzely Adas Saliba Moimaz, Cléa Adas Saliba Garbin
1900, 15:256 (1 January 1900)
DOI:10.4103/1735-3327.237250  PMID:30123302
Background: This study aimed to determine the perception of institutionalized (G1) and noninstitutionalized (G2) elderly people on oral health and quality of life (QOL). Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, exploratory study applied two instruments – the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) and the World Health Organization QOL-Bref (WHOQOL-BREF) – in two cities of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Among the institutionalized elderly, G1 (n = 150), 50% were not mentally able to answer the questions correctly, 12% did not answer all the questions, and 7.34% refused to take part in the research or were too frail or dependent, resulting in 31 institutionalized participants. In the noninstitutionalized group, G2 (n = 80), 52.50% refused to take part in the research, resulting in 38 noninstitutionalized participants. The elderly individuals (i) who did not respond to three or more questions of the GOHAI, (ii) those who did not answer all the questions of the WHOQOL-Bref, and (iii) those who did not consent to participate in the research study were excluded from the study population (P < 0.05 consider significant). Results: The oral health of both groups minimally affected the QOL of the elderly. The WHOQOL-Bref score varied between the two study groups mainly in terms of physical domain and self-perception of QOL. The study groups showed differences in some variables: self-perception of QOL (P = 0.0209), mobility (P = 0.0057), and access to health services (P = 0.0252). G2 presented the best conditions. Conclusion: The oral health condition of both groups minimally affected the QOL of the participants; however, differences in the self-perception of QOL were significant, mainly in the physical domain.
  1,458 189 -
Comparison of surface roughness of enamel and shear bond strength, between conventional acid etching and erbium, chromium-doped: Yttrium scandium-gallium-garnet laser etching – An in vitro study
S Dilip, S Srinivas, MN Mohammed Noufal, K Ravi, R Krishnaraj, Anila Charles
2018, 15:248 (19 July 2018)
Background: The purpose of the study was to evaluate and to compare the shear bond strength (SBS), adhesive remnant index, and surface roughness of the samples bonded after etching with phosphoric acid and erbium, chromium-doped: Yttrium scandium-gallium-garnet (Er, Cr: YSGG) laser. Materials and Methods: In the present analytical/descriptive study, 90 premolars extracted for orthodontic purposes were used, out of which 75 were randomly divided into five groups where five different methods were used to prepare the enamel for bonding; etching with 37% phosphoric acid for 15 s, irradiation with Er, Cr: YSGG laser at 1 watt for 10 s and 20 s, and irradiation with Er, Cr: YSGG laser at 1.5 watt for 10 s and 20 s. Following this, metal brackets were bonded with Transbond XT. Brackets were debonded 24 h, later and SBS were measured, and adhesive remnant index scores were measured. The remaining 15 teeth were used for surface evaluation of these five groups using three-dimensional optical profiler. The results of the SBS testing, adhesive remnant index) scores, and surface roughness values were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and Tukey honestly significant difference tests with a significant level at 0.05. Results: The difference in bond strength between the laser (1.5 W/20 s) and conventional acid etching was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). For acid etch tech, it was 10.48 Mpa and Laser etch at 1.5 W/20 s 10.46 Mpa bond strength attained by the other groups (1 W/10 Hz, 1 W/20 Hz, and 1.5 W/10 Hz) was significantly less than acid etched, and laser etched (1.5 W/20 Hz) groups with P > 0.05. The surface roughness was found to be similar between the laser- (1.5 W/20 s) and acid-etched groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Irradiation with 1.5 W/20 s Er, Cr: YSGG laser produced bond strength comparable to acid etching.
  1,430 188 -
The effect of low-level laser 810 nm and light-emitting diode photobiomodulation (626 nm) on the stability of the implant and inflammatory markers interleukin-1 beta and prostaglandin E2, around implants
Jafar Memarian, Mohammad Ketabi, Shahram Amini
2018, 15:283 (19 July 2018)
DOI:10.4103/1735-3327.237245  PMID:30123306
Background: One of the most common problems in edentulous patients is the low stability of lower dentures. The most effective method to overcome this problem is implant-supported overdentures. After placing an implant, for the process of osseointegration to be complete and successful, it is better that patients do not use their denture for few months. This may be nonconvenient for patient because they are unable to speak and eat properly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of low level laser (LLL) and light-emitting diode (LED) photobiomodulation on implant stability as well as their effect on interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) biomarkers around implant in lower anterior region (over denture). Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, 36 implants were placed in fully edentulous mandibles (12 people per person - three implants in areas of midline and canine). Each of the implants was randomly placed in one of three groups of laser, LED, and control. LLL (power of 50 mw and the amount of 20 J/cm2 for each implant) and LED with dose (20 mw/cm2) were irradiated on the day of surgery (zero), 3, 7, 10, and 14 days. The stability of implants was measured on the day of surgery and weeks 3, 4, and 8 after surgery with Periotest. The inflammatory biomarkers of IL-1β and PGE2 were also collected from gingival crevicular fluid around implants in 4 and 8 weeks. The collected data were analyzed by ANOVA statistical tests.pvalue<0.05 considered significant. Results: The amounts of Periotest significantly increased 3rd week after surgery in the control group (P < 0.001). However, the laser group and LED group were associated with minimal changes, which indicates lower stability of implant in 3rd week in control group but no changes in stability of test groups (laser and LED). Laser and LED had no effect on the level of IL-1β and PGE2 in 4 and 8 weeks. Conclusion: The use of LLL or LED has a positive effect on the stability of the implants 3 weeks after surgery.
  1,256 117 -
Delayed miniature pulpotomy in a symptomatic mature molar
Mohsen Ramazani, Saeed Asgary
2018, 15:302 (19 July 2018)
DOI:10.4103/1735-3327.237251  PMID:30123309
This case report describes miniature pulpotomy (MP) with calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement, 1 week after carious pulpal exposure of a symptomatic mature molar. A 24-year-old woman was referred with complaining of severe lingering pain on the second upper left molar; a dental history revealed that the tooth had been prepared 1 week ago, but on pulp exposure, her dentist just dressed the cavity. After anesthesia/isolation in the same session, the temporary restoration was removed, the previously pulpal exposure was observed, and MP was carried out. Hemorrhage was effectively controlled using 5.25% NaOCl, the clot free pulpal wound was completely covered employing CEM cement, and the cavity was permanently restored by resin composite. The patient's pain gradually relieved within 24 h. The tooth was functional and able to respond to vitality tests in regular clinical follow-ups. At 15-month follow-up, a dentinal bridge was observed under the capping biomaterial, radiographically; moreover, no calcification or apical pathosis was detected. MP with CEM cement might be a treatment option for the management of exposed dental pulp with a clinical diagnosis of irreversible pulpitis, although further trials with larger sample size and longer follow-ups are recommended.
  1,203 149 -
Nanoclay-reinforced polymethylmethacrylate and its mechanical properties
Ali Barzegar, Tahereh Ghaffari
2018, 15:295 (19 July 2018)
DOI:10.4103/1735-3327.237246  PMID:30123308
Background: Incorporation of extra fillers into dental resins might enhance their physical properties. In this study, the tensile and impact strengths of modified heat-curing acrylic resin reinforced with nanoclay were investigated. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, nanoclay-acrylic resin composite was prepared by mixing 0.5, 1, and 2 wt% of nanoclay with methacrylate monomer in an ultrasonic probe, followed by mixing with the polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) powder. 24 cubic 20 mm × 20 mm × 200-mm specimens for each test, 18 samples containing nanoclay and 6 samples for the control group and a total of 48 samples were prepared. The tensile and impact strengths of the samples were tested according to ISO 527 and 179, respectively. One-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis, followed by multiple comparison tests (Scheffé's test). Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: The maximum mean tensile and impact strengths were recorded in the control group, and an acrylic resin containing 2% of nanoclay demonstrated the minimum mean in all the tests. Increasing the percentage of nanoclay in PMMA compromised the tensile strength (P < 0.05) with no effect on its impact strength. Conclusion: Incorporation of nanoclay particles into acrylic resins can adversely affect the mechanical properties of the final products, and this effect is directly correlated with the concentration of nanoparticles.
  1,230 116 -
The effect of fluoride varnish and chlorhexidine gel on white spots and gingival and plaque indices in fixed orthodontic patients: A placebo-controlled study
Shiva Alavi, Navid Yaraghi
2018, 15:276 (19 July 2018)
DOI:10.4103/1735-3327.237244  PMID:30123305
Background: Difficulties to maintain good oral hygiene during orthodontic treatment can cause prolonged accumulation of dental plaque, thereby increasing the risk of developing gingival inflammation and periodontal disease as well as enamel demineralization and caries. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of chlorhexidine (CHX) gel and fluoride varnish versus placebo and control groups on plaque and gingival indices as well as their influence on enamel demineralization prevention in orthodontic patients with fixed appliances. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, forty patients with fixed orthodontic appliances were participated and were divided into control, CHX gel (0.2%), fluoride varnish (5%), and placebo groups. The parameters evaluated in this research were dental plaque index (DPI), index of gingival inflammation, and white spot lesion (WSL) index. For all the patients, each index was scored at the beginning of orthodontic treatment, then 3 months, 6 months, and 9 months afterward. Data were analyzed using Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney tests. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: All the scores showed statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) between the four groups for each of the three time points. A statistically significant decrease of DPI, WSL index, and gingival index was observed 9 months after treatment in fluoride and CHX groups. Conclusion: Adding CHX gel and fluoride varnish to the patients' oral hygiene regimen can reduce the development of plaque and gingivitis and decrease WSLs in orthodontic patients.
  1,222 121 -